Calcium, Strontium, and Barium. Notice that the ionisation energies dominate this - particularly the second ionisation energies. The reactions become easier as the energy needed to form positive ions falls. Strontium reacts with water slowly, generally to strontium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. The strontium metal sinks in water and after a short while bubbles of hydrogen are evident, stuck to the surface of the metal. After several minutes, some bubbles of hydrogen form on its surface, and the coil of magnesium ribbon usually floats to the surface. However, a researcher in the development of nuclear fusion pointed out to me that a lot of work is being done on the reaction between beryllium and steam because it could be a safety issue in reactor design, and sent me a photo showing the result of exposing beryllium to steam at 800°C. The following reaction mechanism is applicable: Sr (s) + 2H 2 O (g) -> Sr (OH) 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) You will need to use the BACK BUTTON on your browser to come back here afterwards. The enthalpy change of a reaction is a measure of the amount of heat absorbed or evolved when the reaction takes place. Very clean magnesium ribbon has a very slight reaction with cold water. (c) A fresh surface of lithium metal is exposed to oxygen gas. Strontium metal dissolves readily in dilute or concentrated hydrochloric acid to form solutions containing the aquated Sr(II) ion together with hydrogen gas, H2. This means that few teachers will ever have handled it - I certainly haven't. Because it gets easier to form the ions, the reactions will happen more quickly. Strontium and barium have reactivities similar to that of lithium. I apologise for my part in this. Ionisation energies fall as you go down the Group. The reaction with bromine takes place at about 400°C and that with iodine at a dull red heat. When strontium reacts with water it forms strontium hydroxide and hydrogen gas is released write the balanced equation for the reaction between strontium and water? I think the problem is that beryllium is both expensive and carries major health risks. Summarising the reason for the increase in reactivity as you go down the Group. The reactions with air. Strontium is very reactive towards the halogens chlorine, Cl2 bromine, Br2, or iodine, I2, and burns to form the dihalides strontium(II) chloride, SrCl2, strontium(II) bromide, SrBr2, and strontium(II) iodide, SrI2 respectively. The reaction is quicker than that of calcium (immediately above strontium in the periodic table) but slower than that of barium (immediately below strontium in the periodic table). These are necessary to convert the metal atoms into ions with a 2+ charge. The calcium hydroxide formed shows up mainly as a white precipitate (although some does dissolve). That means that textbook (or these days, web) statements about it never get checked, and are just passed on regardless of their accuracy. Strontium oxide is more normally made by heating strontium carbonate. Strontium oxide is more normally made by heating strontium carbonate. (b) Strontium oxide is added to water. Calcium, for example, reacts fairly vigorously and exothermically with cold water. It definitely reacts. Strontium and barium have reactivities similar to lithium in Group 1 of the Periodic Table. Beryllium has a strong resistant layer of oxide on its surface which lowers its reactivity at ordinary temperatures. Calcium, for example, reacts fairly vigorously with cold water in an exothermic reaction. This is the energy needed to break the bonds holding the atoms together in the metallic lattice. Write a balanced equation for the reaction that occurs in each of the following cases: (a) Potassium metal is exposed to an atmosphere of chlorine gas. It uses these reactions to explore the trend in reactivity in Group 2. Strontium is an alkaline earth metal, like barium, calcium and magnesium. When strontium nitrite dissolves in water, the nitrite ion NO2 acts as a base. Write a balanced equation for the reaction that occurs in each of the following cases: (a) Potassium metal is exposed to an atmosphere of chlorine gas. Express your answer as a chemical equation. Water-reactive substances are those that spontaneously undergo a chemical reaction with water, as they are highly reducing in nature. Sr(s) + 2HCl(aq) → Sr2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) + H2(g). These all react with cold water with increasing vigour to give the metal hydroxide and hydrogen. All rights reserved. It doesn't matter how exothermic the reaction would be once it got started - if there is a high activation energy barrier, the reaction will take place very slowly, if at all. Calcium, for example, reacts fairly vigorously with cold water in an exothermic reaction. (c) A fresh surface of lithium metal is exposed to oxygen gas. The reason for the increase in reactivity must again lie elsewhere. This reaction takes place by heating to the temperature of no more than 500°C. The strontium metal sinks in water and … The Group 2 metals become more reactive towards water as you go down the Group. Strontium chloride react with water to produce strontium hydroxide and hydrogen chloride. An enthalpy change is negative if heat is evolved, and positive if it is absorbed. The surface of strontium metal is covered with a thin layer of oxide that helps protect the metal from attack by air, but to a lesser extent than the corresponding layer in magnesium. You can reference the WebElements periodic table as follows:"WebElements, https://www.webelements.com, accessed November 2020. That's really all you need to know for this section! Calcium, for example, reacts fairly vigorously with cold water in an exothermic reaction. There is an additional reason for the lack of reactivity of beryllium compared with the rest of the Group. This leads to lower activation energies, and therefore faster reactions. Identify all of the phases in your answer. When Group 2 metals react to form oxides or hydroxides, metal ions are formed. questions on the reactions of Group 2 elements with water, © Jim Clark 2002 (modified November 2016). REACTIONS OF THE GROUP 2 ELEMENTS WITH WATER. (Equation just like the magnesium one below.). (d) Sodium metal reacts with molten sulfur. It reacts with water quicker than calcium, which is placed directly above strontium in the periodic chart, and slower than barium, placed directly below strontium. Copyright 1993-2020 Mark Winter [ The University of Sheffield and WebElements Ltd, UK]. The explanation for the different reactivities must lie somewhere else. The general equation … Magnesium burns in steam to produce white magnesium oxide and hydrogen gas. to form strontium hydroxide, Sr(OH)2 and hydrogen gas (H2). Sr + 2H2O --> Sr(OH)2 + H2 Submit Request Answer Beryllium reacts with steam at high temperatures (typically around 700°C or more) to give white beryllium oxide and hydrogen. However, the oxide layer breaks up above 750°C and exposes the beryllium metal surface below it, and so the protection then fails. Some water-reactive substances are also pyrophoric, like organometallics and sulfuric acid, and should be kept away from moisture. Calcium, strontium and barium These all react with cold water with increasing vigour to give the metal hydroxide and hydrogen. Similarly, if you calculate the enthalpy changes for the reactions between calcium, strontium or barium and cold water, you again find that the amount of heat evolved in each case is almost exactly the same - in this case, about -430 kJ mol-1. If this is the first set of questions you have done, please read the introductory page before you start. Strontium, two places below magnesium in the periodic table is more reactive with air than magnesium. Notable examples include alkali metals, sodium through caesium, and alkaline earth metals, magnesium through barium.. Strontium reacts slowly with water. to form strontium hydroxide, Sr(OH) 2 and hydrogen gas (H 2). Once ignited, strontium metal burns in air to give a mixture of white strontium oxide, SrO, and strontium nitride, Sr3N2. These all react with cold water with increasing vigour to give the metal hydroxide and hydrogen. The equation for the reactions of any of these metals would be: The hydroxides aren't very soluble, but they get more soluble as you go down the Group. You get less precipitate as you go down the Group because more of the hydroxide dissolves in the water. the first + second ionisation energies. 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